“蛟龙”号首次赴西南印度洋开展科考调查

随着汽笛一声长鸣,“向阳红09”船搭载着“蛟龙”号载人潜水器于25日上午驶离江苏江阴,正式起航执行2014年至2015年试验性应用航次第二、三航段任务。据了解,这是“蛟龙”号首次赴西南印度洋开展科考,将在西南印度洋多金属硫化物资源勘探区下潜考察。

“蛟龙”号以往都是赴太平洋试验科考。专家介绍,这次是首赴西南印度洋热液区进行科考调查,也是“蛟龙”号航次史上距离最远、航渡时间最长的一次,将应对更为复杂多变的天气和海况条件,同时海底地形复杂,会给“蛟龙”号作业带来较大难度。

国家深海基地管理中心主任、航次现场总指挥于洪军介绍,2014年至2015年“蛟龙”号试验性应用航次共分三个航段,今年6月至8月在西北太平洋开展了第一航段调查任务。“向阳红09”船于11月20日驶离青岛,25日从江阴搭载“蛟龙”号后赴西南印度洋执行第二、三航段任务。这次任务将历时4个月,预计2015年3月回国。

于洪军说,航次实施期间,我们将着重发挥“蛟龙”号近底高精度取样和测量的独特技术优势,提高“蛟龙”号技术性能和作业能力,完善作业规程;继续培养锻炼工程保障队伍和科学家队伍;进一步探索公开、共享的国家级大型深海装备运行机制。

此次任务中,“蛟龙”号计划下潜20次,主要任务是在西南印度洋多金属硫化物资源勘探区开展多金属硫化物资源、生物多样性和热液微生物生命过程及基因资源潜力研究,履行我国与国际海底管理局签订的勘探合同义务,开展深海科学研究。

中国大洋协会办公室主任刘峰说:“过去的勘探是从船上,放下线缆到几千米的海底查看,调查难度很大。这次‘蛟龙’号下潜,可以有科学家亲临海底,近距离观测。这是海底考察最希望达到的效果。在这方面‘蛟龙’号最有优势。”

于洪军介绍,这次任务中,“蛟龙”号的研发人员进一步减少,科学家人数达到历史最多——将有13名科学家相继在“蛟龙”号上工作。而且第二批潜航员学员作为副驾驶开始下潜作业,这也是他们第一次参与下潜作业。

刘峰介绍,在2012年海试过程中,“蛟龙”号研发人员达到32人,2013年第一个航次减少到10多人,今年第一航段进一步减少,这将为科学家提供更多下潜和科研机会,“蛟龙”号技术越来越成熟,保障人员可以逐渐减少。下潜的科学家也都进行了严格的操作规程培训,一旦遇到主潜航员出现意外情况,科学家也要能驾驶“蛟龙”号安全返回。

于洪军说:“这次任务也是搭载设备最多的一次,包括生物、取样、观察等设备。开展第二、三航段任务,各参航单位已经做好了充分准备,完成了下潜人员培训、仪器设备水池试验、方案论证、出航安全检查等各项工作。

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